ON January 17 1803, a young man named George Forster was hanged for murder at Newgate prison in London.
After his execution, as often happened, his body was carried ceremoniously across the city to the Royal College of Surgeons, where it would be publicly dissected.
What actually happened was rather more shocking than simple dissection though -- Forster was going to be electrified.
The experiments were to be carried out by the Italian natural philosopher Giovanni Aldini, the nephew of Luigi Galvani, who discovered ‘animal electricity’ in 1780, and for whom the field of galvanism is named.
With Forster on the slab before him, Aldini and his assistants started to experiment.
The Times newspaper reported:
On the first application of the process to the face, the jaw of the deceased criminal began to quiver, the adjoining muscles were horribly contorted, and one eye was actually opened.
In the subsequent part of the process, the right hand was raised and clenched, and the legs and thighs were set in motion.
It looked to some spectators ‘as if the wretched man was on the eve of being restored to life.’
By the time Aldini was experimenting on Forster the idea that there was some peculiarly intimate relationship between electricity and the processes of life was at least a century old.
Isaac Newton speculated along such lines in the early 1700s.
In 1730, the English astronomer and dyer Stephen Gray demonstrated the principle of electrical conductivity.
Gray suspended an orphan boy on silk cords in mid air, and placed a positively charged tube near the boy’s feet, creating a negative charge in them.
Due to his electrical isolation, this created a positive charge in the child’s other extremities, causing a nearby dish of gold leaf to be attracted to his fingers.
In France in 1746 Jean Antoine Nollet entertained the court at Versailles by causing a company of 180 royal guardsmen to jump simultaneously when the charge from a Leyden jar (an electrical storage device) passed through their bodies.
It was to defend his uncle’s theories against the attacks of opponents such as Alessandro Volta that Aldini carried out his experiments on Forster.
WHAT IS GALVANISM?
Luigi Galvani was an Italian physician who demonstrated what we now understand to be the electrical basis of nerve impulses, when he made frog muscles twitch by jolting them with a spark from an electrostatic machine.
Galvani one day observed his assistant using a scalpel on a nerve in a frog’s leg; when a nearby electric generator created a spark, the frog’s leg twitched, prompting Galvani to develop his famous experiment.
He concluded that animal tissue contained its own innate vital force, which he termed ‘animal electricity.’
The term galvanism is now used to signify any muscular contraction stimulated by an electrical current.